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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q 
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from          to         
Commission File Number:  001-36124 
Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Pennsylvania46-2116489
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
 845 Berkshire Blvd., Suite 200
Wyomissing, PA 19610
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
 
610-401-2900
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 Not Applicable
(Former name, former address, and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareGLPINasdaq
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
 
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  No  
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
TitleOctober 18, 2023
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share267,015,730



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Forward-looking statements in this document are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements of Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. ("GLPI") and its subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company") to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning the Company’s business strategy, plans, goals and objectives.
 
Forward-looking statements in this document include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our ability to grow our portfolio of gaming facilities. In addition, statements preceded by, followed by or that otherwise include the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "projects," "estimates," "plans," "may increase," "may fluctuate," and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "will," "should," "would," "may" and "could" are generally forward-looking in nature and not historical facts. You should understand that the following important factors could affect future results and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements:

the impact that higher inflation rates and uncertainty with respect to the future state of the economy could have on discretionary consumer spending, including the casino operations of our tenants;

the impact of stress in the banking sector, rising interest rates and elevated levels of inflation (which have been exacerbated by the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine and may be further impacted by recent events in the Middle East);

unforeseen consequences related to United States government monetary policies and stimulus packages on inflation rates and economic growth;

the availability of and the ability to identify suitable and attractive acquisition and development opportunities and the ability to acquire and lease the respective properties on favorable terms;

the degree and nature of our competition;

the ability to receive, or delays in obtaining, the regulatory approvals required to own and/or operate our properties, or other delays or impediments to completing our planned acquisitions or projects;

the current and uncertain future impact of the coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak or a new pandemic, including its effect on the ability or desire of people to gather in large groups (including in casinos), which could continue to impact our financial results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, growth, cash flows, liquidity, and stock price;

our ability to maintain our status as a real estate investment trust ("REIT"), given the highly technical and complex Internal Revenue Code (the "Code") provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist, where even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize REIT qualification and where requirements may depend in part on the actions of third parties over which the Company has no control or only limited influence;

the satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis in order for the Company to maintain its REIT status;

the ability and willingness of our tenants, operators and other third parties to meet and/or perform their obligations under their respective contractual arrangements with us, including lease and note requirements and in some cases, their obligations to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities;

the ability of our tenants and operators to maintain the financial strength and liquidity necessary to satisfy their respective obligations and liabilities to third parties, including, without limitation, to satisfy obligations under their existing credit facilities and other indebtedness;

the ability of our tenants and operators to comply with laws, rules and regulations in the operation of our properties, to deliver high quality services, to attract and retain qualified personnel and to attract customers;

the ability to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

our ability to access capital through debt and equity markets in amounts and at rates and costs acceptable to GLPI, including for acquisitions or refinancings due to maturities;
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adverse changes in our credit rating;

the impact of global or regional economic conditions;

the availability of qualified personnel and our ability to retain our key management personnel;

changes in the United States tax law and other federal, state or local laws, whether or not specific to real estate, REITs or the gaming, lodging or hospitality industries;

changes in accounting standards;

the impact of weather or climate events or conditions, natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other international hostilities, war (including the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine and recent conflicts in the Middle East) or political instability;

the historical financial statements included herein do not reflect what the business, financial position or results of operations of GLPI may be in the future;

other risks inherent in the real estate business, including potential liability relating to environmental matters and illiquidity of real estate investments; and

additional factors as discussed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (the "Annual Report"), in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K as filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Certain of these factors and other factors, risks and uncertainties are discussed in the "Risk Factors" section in the Company’s Annual Report and this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Other unknown or unpredictable factors may also cause actual results to differ materially from those projected by the forward-looking statements. Most of these factors are difficult to anticipate and are generally beyond the control of the Company.
 
You should consider the areas of risk described above, as well as those set forth in the "Risk Factors" section in the Company’s Annual Report and this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, in connection with considering any forward-looking statements that may be made by the Company generally. Except for the ongoing obligations of the Company to disclose material information under the federal securities laws, the Company does not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to any forward-looking statements, to report events or to report the occurrence of unanticipated events unless required to do so by law.

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GAMING AND LEISURE PROPERTIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share data)
 
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
(unaudited)
Assets
Real estate investments, net$8,226,303 $7,707,935 
Investment in leases, financing receivables, net1,998,551 1,903,195 
Real estate loans, net39,291  
Right-of-use assets and land rights, net839,295 834,067 
Cash and cash equivalents81,149 239,083 
Other assets51,032 246,106 
Total assets$11,235,621 $10,930,386 
Liabilities
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$14,433 $6,561 
Accrued interest78,203 82,297 
Accrued salaries and wages5,525 6,742 
Operating lease liabilities197,373 181,965 
Financing lease liabilities54,139 53,792 
Long-term debt, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts6,246,206 6,128,468 
Deferred rental revenue298,329 324,774 
Other liabilities31,203 27,691 
Total liabilities6,925,411 6,812,290 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 9)
Equity
Preferred stock ($.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued or outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022)
  
Common stock ($.01 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized, 267,015,730 and 260,727,030 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
2,670 2,607 
Additional paid-in capital5,867,491 5,573,567 
Accumulated deficit(1,911,623)(1,798,216)
Total equity attributable to Gaming and Leisure Properties3,958,538 3,777,958 
Noncontrolling interests in GLPI's Operating Partnership (7,653,326 units and 7,366,683 units outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
351,672 340,138 
Total equity 4,310,210 4,118,096 
Total liabilities and equity $11,235,621 $10,930,386 
 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income
(in thousands, except per share data)
(unaudited)
 
        
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2023202220232022
Revenues    
Rental income$321,206 $296,779 $958,410 $874,130 
Interest income from investment in leases, financing receivables38,332 37,039 112,931 101,167 
Interest income from real estate loans22  22  
Total income from real estate359,560 333,818 1,071,363 975,297 
Operating expenses    
Land rights and ground lease expense12,406 11,754 36,312 37,178 
General and administrative13,600 12,060 42,689 40,004 
Gains from dispositions of property(22)(67,430)(22)(67,481)
Property transfer tax recovery and impairment charge(2,187) (2,187)3,298 
Depreciation65,846 59,887 197,131 178,980 
Provision (benefit) for credit losses, net1,613 (19)24,012 28,859 
Total operating expenses91,256 16,252 297,935 220,838 
Income from operations268,304 317,566 773,428 754,459 
Other income (expenses)    
Interest expense(79,788)(76,574)(240,519)(232,753)
Interest income1,273 488 6,801 612 
 Losses on debt extinguishment  (556)(2,189)
Total other expenses(78,515)(76,086)(234,274)(234,330)
Income before income taxes189,789 241,480 539,154 520,129 
Income tax expense482 15,261 1,040 16,431 
Net income$189,307 $226,219 $538,114 $503,698 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest in the Operating Partnership(5,297)(6,265)(15,123)(13,162)
Net income attributable to common shareholders$184,010 $219,954 $522,991 $490,536 
Earnings per common share:    
Basic earnings attributable to common shareholders$0.70 $0.86 $1.99 $1.96 
Diluted earnings attributable to common shareholders$0.70 $0.85 $1.99 $1.95 
 
See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
 
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Noncontrolling Interest Operating PartnershipTotal
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance, December 31, 2022260,727,030 $2,607 $5,573,567 $(1,798,216)$340,138 $4,118,096 
Issuance of common stock, net of costs1,284,556 13 64,316 — — 64,329 
Restricted stock activity
344,139 4 (5,637)— — (5,633)
Dividends paid ($0.97 per common share)
— — — (254,778)— (254,778)
Issuance of operating partnership units— — — — 14,931 14,931 
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (7,424)(7,424)
Net income
— — — 183,351 5,319 188,670 
Balance, March 31, 2023262,355,725 $2,624 $5,632,246 $(1,869,643)$352,964 $4,118,191 
Issuance of common stock, net of costs284,453 2 14,353 — — 14,355 
Restricted stock activity
  5,013 — — 5,013 
Dividends paid ( $0.72 per common share)
— — — (189,313)— (189,313)
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (5,509)(5,509)
Net income
— — — 155,630 4,507 160,137 
Balance, June 30, 2023262,640,178 $2,626 $5,651,612 $(1,903,326)$351,962 $4,102,874 
Issuance of common stock, net of costs4,371,624 44 210,743 — — 210,787 
Restricted stock activity
3,928  5,136 — — 5,136 
Dividends paid ($0.73 per common share)
— — — (192,307)— (192,307)
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (5,587)(5,587)
Net income
— — — 184,010 5,297 189,307 
Balance, September 30, 2023267,015,730 $2,670 $5,867,491 $(1,911,623)$351,672 $4,310,210 


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 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Noncontrolling Interest Operating PartnershipTotal
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance, December 31, 2021247,206,937 $2,472 $4,953,943 $(1,771,402)$205,127 $3,390,140 
Issuance of common stock, net of costs  (37)— — (37)
Restricted stock activity
337,406 3 (4,268)— — (4,265)
Dividends paid ($0.69 per common share)
— — — (171,005)— (171,005)
Issuance of operating partnership units— — — — 137,043 137,043 
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (5,083)(5,083)
Net income
— — — 119,268 2,424 121,692 
Balance, March 31, 2022247,544,343 $2,475 $4,949,638 $(1,823,139)$339,511 $3,468,485 
Restricted stock activity
  4,308 — — 4,308 
Dividends paid ( $0.705 per common share)
— — — (174,724)— (174,724)
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (5,194)(5,194)
Net income
— — — 151,314 4,473 155,787 
Balance, June 30, 2022247,544,343 $2,475 $4,953,946 $(1,846,549)$338,790 $3,448,662 
Issuance of common stock, net of costs9,969,723 100 455,033 — — 455,133 
Restricted stock activity
2,859  4,277 4,277 
Dividends paid ( $0.705 per common share)
— — — (181,751)— (181,751)
Distributions to non-controlling interest— — — — (5,193)(5,193)
Net income
— — — 219,954 6,265 226,219 
Balance, September 30, 2022257,516,925 $2,575 $5,413,256 $(1,808,346)$339,862 $3,947,347 


See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands, unaudited)
Nine months ended September 30,20232022
Operating activities  
Net income$538,114 $503,698 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization207,409 191,550 
Amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts7,312 7,598 
Accretion on financing receivables(16,806)(14,103)
Non-cash adjustment to financing lease liabilities347 360 
Gains from dispositions of property(22)(67,481)
Stock-based compensation17,959 16,244 
Straight-line rent adjustments(26,445)(1,522)
Impairment charge  3,298 
Losses on debt extinguishment 556 2,189 
Provision for credit losses, net24,012 28,859 
(Increase), decrease  
Other assets(2,153)14,610 
Increase, (decrease)  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(457)562 
Accrued interest(4,094)14,847 
Accrued salaries and wages(1,217)(1,520)
Other liabilities1,861 277 
Net cash provided by operating activities746,376 699,466 
Investing activities  
Capital project expenditures(39,534)(16,393)
Capital maintenance expenditures (102)
Proceeds from sales of property, net of costs 148,709 
Investment in leases, financing receivables(100,202)(129,047)
Acquisition of real estate, net (455,556)(350,126)
  Originations of real estate loans(40,000) 
Net cash used in investing activities(635,292)(346,959)
Financing activities  
Dividends paid(636,398)(586,871)
Non-controlling interest distributions(18,520)(15,470)
Taxes paid related to shares withheld for tax purposes on restricted stock award vestings(13,442)(11,926)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net289,471 455,098 
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt685,000 424,000 
Financing costs(1)(11,890)
Repayments of long-term debt(575,111)(1,271,017)
Costs paid on senior unsecured note redemption(17) 
Net cash used in financing activities(269,018)(1,018,076)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(157,934)(665,569)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period239,083 724,595 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$81,149 $59,026 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements and Note 14 for supplemental cash flow information and noncash investing and financing activities.
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Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc.
Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

1.    Business and Operations
 
Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. ("GLPI") is a self-administered and self-managed Pennsylvania real estate investment trust ("REIT"). GLPI (together with its subsidiaries, the "Company") was incorporated on February 13, 2013, as a wholly-owned subsidiary of PENN Entertainment, Inc., formerly known as Penn National Gaming, Inc. (NASDAQ: PENN) ("PENN"). On November 1, 2013, PENN contributed to GLPI, through a series of internal corporate restructurings, substantially all of the assets and liabilities associated with PENN’s real property interests and real estate development business, as well as the assets and liabilities of Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and Hollywood Casino Perryville and then spun-off GLPI to holders of PENN's common and preferred stock in a tax-free distribution (the "Spin-Off"). The assets and liabilities of GLPI were recorded at their respective historical carrying values at the time of the Spin-Off in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 505-60 - Spinoffs and Reverse Spinoffs ("ASC 505").

The Company elected on its United States ("U.S.") federal income tax return for its taxable year that began on January 1, 2014 to be treated as a REIT and GLPI, together with its indirect wholly-owned subsidiary, GLP Holdings, Inc., jointly elected to treat each of GLP Holdings, Inc., Louisiana Casino Cruises, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge) and Penn Cecil Maryland, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Perryville) as a "taxable REIT subsidiary" ("TRS") effective on the first day of the first taxable year of GLPI as a REIT. On July 1, 2021, the Company sold the operations of Hollywood Casino Perryville to PENN and leased the real estate to PENN pursuant to a standalone lease. On December 17, 2021, the Company sold the operations of Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge to The Queen Casino & Entertainment Inc., formerly known as CQ Holding Company, Inc., ("Casino Queen") and leased the real estate to Casino Queen pursuant to the Casino Queen Master Lease as described below. On December 17, 2021, GLPI declared a special dividend to the Company's shareholders to distribute the accumulated earnings and profits attributable to these sales. In 2021, as a result of the sale of the operations of Hollywood Casino Perryville and Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge, GLP Holdings, Inc. was merged into GLP Capital, LP., the operating partnership of GLPI ("GLP Capital").

During 2020, the Company and Tropicana LV, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company that at the time held the real estate of Tropicana Las Vegas Casino Hotel Resort ("Tropicana Las Vegas"), elected to treat Tropicana LV, LLC as a TRS. In September 2022, Bally's Corporation (NYSE: BALY) ("Bally's") acquired both the building assets from GLPI and PENN's outstanding equity interests in Tropicana Las Vegas. GLPI retained ownership of the land and entered into a ground lease with Bally's. In connection with this transaction, Tropicana LV, LLC was merged into GLP Capital and GLPI paid a special earnings and profits dividend of $0.25 per share in the first quarter of 2023 related to the sale of the building.

As partial consideration for the transactions with The Cordish Companies ("Cordish") described below, GLP Capital issued 7,366,683 newly-issued operating partnership units ("OP Units") to affiliates of Cordish. OP Units are exchangeable for common shares of the Company on a one-for-one basis, subject to certain terms and conditions. Such issuance of OP Units to Cordish in exchange for its contribution of certain real property assets resulted in GLP Capital becoming treated as a partnership for income tax purposes, with GLPI being deemed to contribute substantially all of the assets and liabilities of GLP Capital in exchange for the general partnership and a majority of the limited partnership interests, and a minority limited partnership interest being owned by Cordish (the "UPREIT Transaction"). In advance of the UPREIT Transaction, the Company, together with GLP Financing II, Inc. jointly elected for GLP Financing II, to be treated as a TRS effective December 23, 2021. On January 3, 2023, the Company issued 286,643 OP Units to affiliates of Bally's in connection with its acquisition of Bally's Hard Rock Hotel & Casino ("Bally's Biloxi") and Bally's Tiverton Casino & Hotel ("Bally's Tiverton").

GLPI’s primary business consists of acquiring, financing, and owning real estate property to be leased to gaming operators in triple-net lease arrangements. As of September 30, 2023, GLPI’s portfolio consisted of interests in 61 gaming and related facilities, the real property associated with 34 gaming and related facilities operated by PENN, the real property associated with 7 gaming and related facilities operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation (NASDAQ: CZR) ("Caesars"), the real property associated with 4 gaming and related facilities operated by Boyd Gaming Corporation (NYSE: BYD) ("Boyd"), the real property associated with 9 gaming and related facilities operated by Bally's, the real property associated with 3 gaming and related facilities operated by Cordish, the real property associated with 3 gaming and related facilities operated by Casino Queen and 1 gaming facility under construction that upon opening is intended to be managed by Hard Rock. These facilities, including our corporate headquarters building, are geographically diversified across 18 states and contain approximately 28.7 million square feet. As of September 30, 2023, the Company's properties were 100% occupied. GLPI expects to continue growing its portfolio by pursuing opportunities to acquire additional gaming facilities to lease to gaming operators under prudent terms.
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PENN 2023 Master Lease and Amended PENN Master Lease

As a result of the Spin-Off, GLPI owns substantially all of PENN’s former real property assets (as of the consummation of the Spin-Off) and leases back most of those assets to PENN for use by its subsidiaries pursuant to a unitary master lease (the "Original PENN Master Lease"). The Original PENN Master Lease is a triple-net operating lease, the term of which expires on October 31, 2033, with no purchase option, followed by three remaining 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions.

On October 10, 2022, the Company announced that it agreed to create a new master lease with PENN for seven of PENN's current properties. The companies also agreed to a funding mechanism to support PENN's pursuit of relocation and development opportunities at several of the properties included in the new master lease. The transaction, including the creation of the new master lease, became effective on January 1, 2023.

Pursuant to this agreement, the Original PENN Master Lease was amended (the "Amended PENN Master Lease") to remove PENN's properties in Aurora and Joliet, Illinois; Columbus and Toledo, Ohio; and Henderson, Nevada. The properties removed from the Original PENN Master Lease were added to a new master lease. In addition, the existing leases for the Hollywood Casino at The Meadows in Pennsylvania (the "Meadows Lease") and the Hollywood Casino Perryville in Maryland (the "Perryville Lease") were terminated and these properties were transferred into the new master lease (the "PENN 2023 Master Lease"). GLPI agreed to fund up to $225 million for the relocation of PENN's riverboat casino in Aurora at a 7.75% cap rate and, if requested by PENN, will fund up to $350 million for the relocation of the Hollywood Casino Joliet as well as the construction of hotels at Hollywood Casino Columbus and a second hotel tower at the M Resort Spa Casino at then current market rates.

The terms of the PENN 2023 Master Lease and the Amended PENN Master Lease are substantially similar to the Original PENN Master Lease with the following key differences;

The PENN 2023 Master Lease is cross-defaulted and co-terminus with the Amended PENN Master Lease.
The rent for the PENN 2023 Master Lease is $232.2 million in base rent which is fixed with annual escalations of 1.50%, with the first escalation to occur for the lease year beginning on November 1, 2023.
The rent for the Amended PENN Master Lease is $284.1 million, consisting of $208.2 million of building base rent, $43.0 million of land base rent, and $32.9 million of percentage rent.

Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and Belterra Park Lease

In April 2016, the Company acquired substantially all of the real estate assets of Pinnacle Entertainment, Inc. ("Pinnacle") for approximately $4.8 billion. GLPI originally leased these assets back to Pinnacle, under a unitary triple-net lease, the term of which expires April 30, 2031, with no purchase option, followed by four remaining 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions (the "Pinnacle Master Lease"). On October 15, 2018, the Company completed its previously announced transactions with PENN, Pinnacle and Boyd to accommodate PENN's acquisition of the majority of Pinnacle's operations, pursuant to a definitive agreement and plan of merger between PENN and Pinnacle, dated December 17, 2017 (the "PENN-Pinnacle Merger"). Concurrent with the PENN-Pinnacle Merger, the Company amended the Pinnacle Master Lease to allow for the sale of the operating assets of Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City, Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles and Belterra Casino Resort from Pinnacle to Boyd (the "Amended Pinnacle Master Lease") and entered into a new unitary triple-net master lease agreement with Boyd (the "Boyd Master Lease") for these properties on terms similar to the Company’s Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Boyd Master Lease has an initial term of 10 years (from the original April 2016 commencement date of the Pinnacle Master Lease and expiring April 30, 2026), with no purchase option, followed by five 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. The Company also purchased the real estate assets of Plainridge Park Casino ("Plainridge Park") from PENN for $250.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes, and added this property to the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Amended Pinnacle Master Lease was assumed by PENN at the consummation of the PENN-Pinnacle Merger. The Company also entered into a mortgage loan agreement with Boyd in connection with Boyd's acquisition of Belterra Park Gaming & Entertainment Center ("Belterra Park"), whereby the Company loaned Boyd $57.7 million (the "Belterra Park Loan"). In May 2020, the Company acquired the real estate of Belterra Park in satisfaction of the Belterra Park Loan, subject to a long-term lease (the "Belterra Park Lease") with a Boyd affiliate operating the property. The Belterra Park Lease rent terms are consistent with the Boyd Master Lease. The annual rent is comprised of a fixed component, part of which is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities which is adjusted, subject to certain
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floors, every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of Belterra Park during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

Second Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease

On October 1, 2018, the Company closed its previously announced transaction to acquire certain real property assets from Tropicana Entertainment Inc. ("Tropicana") and certain of its affiliates pursuant to a Purchase and Sale Agreement dated April 15, 2018 between Tropicana and GLP Capital, which was subsequently amended on October 1, 2018 (as amended, the "Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement"). Pursuant to the terms of the Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired the real estate assets of Tropicana Atlantic City, Tropicana Evansville, Tropicana Laughlin, Trop Casino Greenville and the Belle of Baton Rouge (the "GLP Assets") from Tropicana for an aggregate cash purchase price of $964.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes (the "Tropicana Acquisition"). Concurrent with the Tropicana Acquisition, Eldorado Resorts, Inc. (now doing business as Caesars) acquired the operating assets of these properties from Tropicana pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated April 15, 2018 by and among Tropicana, GLP Capital, Caesars and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Caesars and leased the GLP Assets from the Company pursuant to the terms of a new unitary triple-net master lease with an initial term of 15 years, with no purchase option, followed by four successive 5-year renewal periods (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions (the "Caesars Master Lease").

On June 15, 2020, the Company amended and restated the Caesars Master Lease (as amended, the "Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease") to, (i) extend the initial term of 15 years to 20 years, with renewals of up to an additional 20 years at the option of Caesars, (ii) remove the variable rent component in its entirety commencing with the third lease year, (iii) in the third lease year, increase annual land base rent and annual building base rent, (iv) provide fixed escalation percentages that delay the escalation of building base rent until the commencement of the fifth lease year with building base rent increasing annually by 1.25% in the fifth and sixth lease years, 1.75% in the seventh and eighth lease years and 2% in the ninth lease year and each lease year thereafter, (v) subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, permit Caesars to elect to replace the Tropicana Evansville and/or Tropicana Greenville properties under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease with one or more of Caesars Gaming Scioto Downs, The Row in Reno, Isle Casino Racing Pompano Park, Isle Casino Hotel – Black Hawk, Lady Luck Casino – Black Hawk, Isle Casino Waterloo ("Waterloo"), Isle Casino Bettendorf ("Bettendorf") or Isle of Capri Casino Boonville, provided that the aggregate value of such new property, individually or collectively, was at least equal to the value of Tropicana Evansville or Tropicana Greenville, as applicable, (vi) permit Caesars to elect to sell its interest in Belle of Baton Rouge and sever it from the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease (with no change to the rent obligation to the Company), subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, and (vii) provide certain relief under the operating, capital expenditure and financial covenants thereunder in the event of facility closures due to pandemics, governmental restrictions and certain other instances of unavoidable delay. The effectiveness of the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease was subject to the review and approval of certain gaming regulatory agencies and the expiration of applicable gaming regulatory advance notice periods which conditions were satisfied on July 23, 2020.

On December 18, 2020, the Company and Caesars entered into an amendment to the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease (as amended, the "Second Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease") in connection with the completion of an Exchange Agreement (the "Exchange Agreement") with subsidiaries of Caesars in which Caesars transferred to the Company the real estate assets of Waterloo and Bettendorf in exchange for the transfer by the Company to Caesars of the real property assets of Tropicana Evansville, plus a cash payment of $5.7 million. In connection with the Exchange Agreement, the annual building base rent and the annual land base rent was increased.

Horseshoe St. Louis Lease

On October 1, 2018, the Company entered into a loan agreement with Caesars in connection with Caesars’s acquisition of Lumière Place Casino, now known as Horseshoe St. Louis ("Horseshoe St. Louis"), whereby the Company loaned Caesars $246.0 million (the "CZR loan"). The CZR loan bore interest at a rate equal to (i) 9.09% until October 1, 2019 and (ii) 9.27% until its maturity. On the one-year anniversary of the CZR loan, the mortgage evidenced by a deed of trust on the Horseshoe St. Louis property terminated and the loan became unsecured. On June 24, 2020, the Company received approval from the Missouri Gaming Commission to own the Horseshoe St. Louis property in satisfaction of the CZR loan. On September 29, 2020, the transaction closed and the Company entered into a new triple net lease with Caesars (the "Horseshoe St. Louis Lease") the initial term of which expires on October 31, 2033, with four separate renewal options of five years each, exercisable at the tenant's option. The Horseshoe St. Louis Lease rent terms were adjusted on December 1, 2021 such that the annual escalator is now fixed at 1.25% for the second through fifth lease years, increasing to 1.75% for the sixth and seventh lease years and thereafter increasing by 2.0% for the remainder of the lease.

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Bally's Master Lease

On June 3, 2021, the Company completed its previously announced transaction pursuant to which a subsidiary of Bally's acquired 100% of the equity interests in the Caesars subsidiary that currently operates Tropicana Evansville and the Company reacquired the real property assets of Tropicana Evansville from Caesars for a cash purchase price of approximately $340.0 million. In addition, the Company purchased the real estate assets of Dover Downs Hotel & Casino from Bally's for a cash purchase price of approximately $144.0 million. The real estate assets of these two facilities were added to a new triple net master lease (the "Bally's Master Lease") the annual rent of which is subject to contractual escalations based on the Consumer Price Index ("CPI") with a 1% floor and a 2% ceiling, subject to the CPI meeting a 0.5% threshold. The Bally's Master Lease has an initial term of 15 years, with no purchase option, followed by four 5 year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions.

On April 1, 2022 and January 3, 2023, the Company completed additional acquisitions of various land and real estate assets of Bally's casinos, namely Bally's Biloxi, Bally's Tiverton, Bally's Black Hawk and Bally's Quad Cities. These properties were added to the existing Bally's Master Lease with annual rent increases that are subject to the escalation clauses described above.

In connection with GLPI’s commitment to consummate the Bally’s Biloxi and Bally's Tiverton acquisitions, the Company also agreed to pre-fund, at Bally’s election, a deposit of up to $200.0 million, which was funded in September 2022 and recorded in Other assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2022. This amount was credited to GLPI along with a $9.0 million transaction fee payable at closing which occurred on January 3, 2023. The Company continues to have the option, subject to receipt by Bally's of required consents, to acquire the real property assets of Bally's Twin River Lincoln Casino Resort ("Bally's Lincoln") prior to December 31, 2026 for a purchase price of $771.0 million and additional rent of $58.8 million.

Tropicana Las Vegas Lease

On April 16, 2020, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries closed on its previously announced transaction to acquire the real property associated with the Tropicana Las Vegas from PENN in exchange for $307.5 million of rent credits which were applied against future rent obligations due under the parties' existing leases during 2020.

On September 26, 2022, Bally’s acquired both GLPI’s building assets and PENN's outstanding equity interests in Tropicana Las Vegas for an aggregate cash acquisition price, net of fees and expenses, of approximately $145 million, which resulted in a pre-tax gain of $67.4 million, $52.8 million after-tax. GLPI retained ownership of the land and concurrently entered into a ground lease for an initial term of 50 years (with a maximum term of 99 years inclusive of tenant renewal options). All rent is subject to contractual escalations based on the CPI, with a 1% floor and 2% ceiling, subject to the CPI meeting a 0.5% threshold. The ground lease is supported by a Bally’s corporate guarantee and cross-defaulted with the Bally's Master Lease (the "Tropicana Las Vegas Lease").

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On May 13, 2023 the Company, Tropicana Las Vegas, Inc., a Nevada corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of Bally’s, and Athletics Holdings LLC (“Athletics”), which owns the Major League Baseball (“MLB”) team currently known as the Oakland Athletics (the “Team”), entered into a binding letter of intent (the “LOI”) setting forth the terms for developing a stadium that would serve as the home venue for the Team (the “Stadium”). The Stadium is expected to complement the potential resort redevelopment envisioned at our 35-acre property in Clark County, Nevada (the “Tropicana Site”), owned indirectly by GLPI through its indirect subsidiary, Tropicana Land LLC, a Nevada limited liability company and leased by GLPI to Bally’s pursuant to the Tropicana Las Vegas Lease. The LOI allows for Athletics to be granted fee ownership by GLPI of approximately 9 acres of the Tropicana Site for construction of the Stadium. The LOI provides that following the Stadium site transfer, there will be no reduction in the rent obligations of Bally’s on the remaining portion of the Tropicana Site or other modifications to the ground lease, and that to the extent GLPI has any consent or approval rights under the Tropicana Las Vegas Lease, such rights shall remain enforceable unless expressly modified in writing in the definitive documents. Bally's and GLPI are agreeing to provide the Stadium site transfer in exchange for the benefits that the Stadium is expected to bring to the Tropicana Site. The LOI provides that Athletics shall pay all the costs associated with the design, development, and construction of the Stadium and Bally’s shall pay all costs for the redevelopment of the casino and hotel resort amenities. GLPI is expected to commit to up to $175.0 million of funding for hard construction costs, such as demolition and site preparation and build out of minimum public spaces needed for utilization of the Stadium (including, without limitation, a food, beverage and retail entrance plaza and structured parking). The LOI provides that during the development period, rent will be due at 8.5% of what has been funded, provided that the first $15.0 million advanced for the costs of construction of the food, beverage and retail entrance plaza shall not be subject to increased rent. GLPI may have the opportunity to fund additional amounts of the construction under certain circumstances. In addition, the LOI provides that the transaction will be subject to customary approvals and other conditions, including, without limitation, the approval of the MLB owners to relocate the Team on or before December 1, 2023, and certain approvals by the Nevada Gaming Control Board and Nevada Gaming Commission.

Morgantown Lease

On October 1, 2020, the Company and PENN closed on their previously announced transaction whereby GLPI acquired the land under PENN's gaming facility under construction in Morgantown, Pennsylvania in exchange for $30.0 million in rent credits that were utilized by PENN in the fourth quarter of 2020. The Company is leasing the land back to an affiliate of PENN for an initial term of 20 years, followed by six 5-year renewal options exercisable by the tenant. On the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter rent shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease years and commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (i) if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (ii) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5%for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year (the "Morgantown Lease"). Hollywood Casino Morgantown opened on December 22, 2021.

Casino Queen Master Lease

On November 25, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell the operations of its Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge to Casino Queen for $28.2 million (the "HCBR transaction"). The HCBR transaction closed on December 17, 2021. The Company retained ownership of all real estate assets at Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and simultaneously entered into a triple net master lease with Casino Queen, which includes the Casino Queen property in East St. Louis that was leased by the Company to Casino Queen and the Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge facility ("Casino Queen Master Lease"). The lease has an initial term of 15 years with four 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. The annual rent increases by 0.5% for the first six years. Beginning with the seventh lease year through the remainder of the lease term, if the CPI increases by at least 0.25% for any lease year then annual rent shall be increased by 1.25%, and if the CPI increase is less than 0.25% then rent will remain unchanged for such lease year. Additionally, the Company's landside development project at Casino Queen Baton Rouge was completed in late August 2023 and the rent under the Casino Queen Master Lease was adjusted upon opening to reflect a yield of 8.25% on GLPI's project costs of $77 million. The Company also acquired the land and certain improvements at Casino Queen Marquette for $32.72 million as of September 6, 2023. The annual rent on the Casino Queen Master Lease was increased by $2.7 million for this acquisition. Additionally, the Company anticipates funding certain construction costs for an amount not to exceed $12.5 million, for a landside development project at Casino Queen Marquette that is expected to be completed by December 31, 2024. The rent under the Casino Queen Master Lease will be adjusted to reflect a yield of 8.25% for the funded project costs for this project.


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Maryland Live! Lease and Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease

On December 6, 2021, the Company announced that it agreed to acquire the real property assets of Live! Casino & Hotel Maryland, Live! Casino & Hotel Philadelphia, and Live! Casino Pittsburgh, including applicable long-term ground leases, from affiliates of Cordish for aggregate consideration of approximately $1.81 billion, excluding transaction costs at deal announcement. The transaction also includes a binding partnership on future Cordish casino developments, as well as potential financing partnerships between the Company and Cordish in other areas of Cordish's portfolio of real estate and operating businesses. On December 29, 2021, the Company completed its acquisition of the real property assets of Live! Casino & Hotel Maryland and entered into a single asset lease for Live! Casino & Hotel Maryland (the "Maryland Live! Lease"). On March 1, 2022, the Company completed its acquisition of the real estate assets of Live! Casino & Hotel Philadelphia and Live! Casino Pittsburgh for $689 million and leased back the real estate to Cordish pursuant to a new triple net master lease with Cordish (the "Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease"). The Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease and the Maryland Live! Lease both have initial lease terms of 39 years, with a maximum term of 60 years inclusive of tenant renewal options. The annual rent for both leases has a 1.75% fixed yearly escalator on the entirety of rent commencing on the leases' second anniversary.

Rockford Lease

On August 29, 2023, the Company acquired the land associated with a development project in Rockford, IL, that upon opening is intended to be managed by Hard Rock, from an affiliate of 815 Entertainment, LLC (together, "815 Entertainment") for $100.0 million. Simultaneously with the land acquisition, GLPI entered into a ground lease with 815 Entertainment for a 99 year term. The initial annual rent for the ground lease is $8.0 million, subject to fixed 2% annual escalation beginning with the lease's first anniversary and for the entirety of its term (the "Rockford Lease").

In addition to the Rockford Lease, the Company has also committed to providing up to $150 million of development funding via a senior secured delayed draw term loan (the "Rockford Loan"). Any borrowings under the Rockford Loan will be subject to an interest rate of 10%. The Rockford Loan has a draw period of up to 1 year and a maximum outstanding period of up to 6 years (5-year initial term with a 1-year extension). The Rockford Loan is prepayable without penalty following the opening of the Hard Rock Casino in Rockford, IL, which is expected in September 2024. The Rockford Loan advances are subject to typical construction lending terms and conditions. As of September 30, 2023, $40 million was advanced and outstanding under the Rockford Loan. Additionally, the Company also received a right of first refusal on the building improvements of the Hard Rock Casino in Rockford, IL if there is a future decision to sell them once completed.

2.    Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") for interim financial information and with the instructions for Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all normal recurring adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included.

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of GLPI and its subsidiaries as well as the Company's operating partnership, which is a variable interest entity ("VIE") in which the Company is the primary beneficiary. The Company presents non-controlling interests and classifies such interests as a separate component of equity, separate from GLPI's stockholders' equity and as net income attributable to non-controlling interest in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Income. The operating partnership is a VIE in which the Company is the primary beneficiary because it has the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the partnership's economic performance and has the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could be potentially significant to the VIE and the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Therefore, the Company consolidates the accounts of the operating partnership, and reflects the third party ownership in this entity as a noncontrolling interest in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses for the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023. The consolidated financial statements contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (our "Annual Report") should be read in conjunction with these
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condensed consolidated financial statements. The December 31, 2022 financial information has been derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements.

The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report and since the date of those financial statements, the Company has not had any significant changes to these accounting policies that have had a material impact on the Company's financial statements other than what is described below.

Real Estate Loans

The Company may periodically loan funds to casino owner-operators for the purchase or construction of gaming related real estate. Loans for the construction or purchase of real estate assets of gaming related properties are classified as real estate loans on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Interest income related to real estate loans is recorded as interest income from real estate loans within the Company's Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income in the period earned.


3.    Investment in leases, financing receivables, net

In connection with the Maryland Live! Lease that became effective on December 29, 2021, the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease that became effective March 1, 2022 and the Rockford Lease that became effective on August 29, 2023, the Company recorded an Investment in leases, financing receivables, net, as the sale lease back transactions were accounted for as failed sale leasebacks. The following is a summary of the balances of the Company's Investment in leases, financing receivables, net.


September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Minimum lease payments receivable$9,021,485 $6,676,528 
Estimated residual values of lease property (unguaranteed)1,041,087 940,885 
Total10,062,572 7,617,413 
Less: Unearned income(8,023,245)(5,695,094)
Less: Allowance for credit losses(40,776)(19,124)
Investment in leases - financing receivables, net$1,998,551 $1,903,195 


The present value of the net investment in the lease payment receivable and unguaranteed residual value at September 30, 2023 was $1,985.5 million and $53.8 million compared to $1,871.5 million and $50.8 million at December 31, 2022.

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At September 30, 2023, minimum lease payments owed to us for each of the five succeeding years under the Company's financing receivables were as follows (in thousands):
Year ending December 31,Future Minimum Lease Payments
2023 (remainder of year)$33,808 
2024137,339 
2025139,746 
2026142,195 
2027144,687 
Thereafter8,423,710 
Total$9,021,485 
The Company follows ASC 326 “Credit Losses”, which requires that the Company measure and record current expected credit losses (“CECL”), the scope of which includes our Investment in leases, financing receivables, net, as well as the Company's Real estate loans which are discussed in Note 5. The Company has elected to use an econometric default and loss rate model to estimate the allowance for credit losses, or CECL allowance. This model requires us to calculate and input lease and property-specific credit and performance metrics which in conjunction with forward-looking economic forecasts, project estimated credit losses over the life of the lease or loan. The Company then records a CECL allowance based on the expected loss rate multiplied by the outstanding investment.

Expected losses within our cash flows are determined by estimating the probability of default (“PD”) and loss given default (“LGD”) of our instruments subject to CECL. We have engaged a nationally recognized data analytics firm to assist us with estimating both the PD and LGD. The PD and LGD are estimated during the initial term of the instruments subject to CECL. The PD and LGD estimates were developed using current financial condition forecasts. The PD and LGD predictive model was developed using the average historical default rates and historical loss rates, respectively, of over 100,000 commercial real estate loans dating back to 1998 that have similar credit profiles or characteristics to the real estate underlying the Company's instruments subject to CECL. Management will monitor the credit risk related to its instruments subject to CECL by obtaining the applicable rent and interest coverage on a periodic basis. The Company also monitors legislative changes to assess whether it would have an impact on the underlying performance of its tenant. We are unable to use our historical data to estimate losses as the Company has no loss history to date on its lease portfolio. Our tenants were current on all of their rental obligations as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.

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The change in the allowance for credit losses for the Company's financing receivables is illustrated below (in thousands):

Rockford LeaseMaryland Live! LeasePennsylvania Live! Master LeaseTotal
Balance at December 31, 2022$ $4,095 $15,029 $19,124 
Change in allowance (881)(4,772)(5,653)
Ending balance at March 31, 2023$ $3,214 $10,257 $13,471 
Change in allowance 8,142 19,910 28,052 
Ending balance at June 30, 2023$ $11,356 $30,167 $41,523 
Change in allowance3,867 (789)(3,825)(747)
Ending balance at September 30, 2023$3,867 $10,567 $26,342 $40,776 


Maryland Live! LeasePennsylvania Live! Master LeaseTotal
Balance at December 31, 2021$12,226 $ $12,226 
Change in allowance(5,621)32,277 26,656 
Ending balance at March 31, 2022$6,605 $32,277 $38,882 
Change in allowance1,783 439 2,222 
Ending balance at June 30, 2022$8,388 $32,716 $41,104 
Change in allowance(187)168 (19)
Ending balance at September 30, 2022$8,201 $32,884 $41,085 


The amortized cost basis of the Company's investment in leases, financing receivables by year of origination is shown below as of September 30, 2023 (in thousands):

Origination year
202320222021Total
Investment in leases, financing receivables$100,361 $702,466 $1,236,500 $2,039,327 
Allowance for credit losses(3,867)(26,342)(10,567)(40,776)
Amortized cost basis at September 30, 2023
$96,494 $676,124 $1,225,933 $1,998,551 
Allowance as a percentage of outstanding financing receivable(3.85)%(3.75)%(0.85)%(2.00)%

During the three months ended September 30, 2023, a provision for credit losses, net of $1.6 million was recorded. This was a result of the initial establishment of $6.2 million of reserves on the Rockford Lease and Rockford Loan (See Note 5) which was partially offset by a benefit of $4.6 million on the Maryland Live! Lease and Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease as the result of an improved Commercial Real Estate Price Index forecast compared to the forecast utilized as of June 30, 2023.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recorded a provision for credit losses, net of $24.0 million. This was primarily due to a decline in the estimated real estate values underlying the Company's Investment in leases, financing receivables. These values are estimated based on long term projections of the Commercial Real Estate Price Index which, as of September 30, 2023, have declined relative to December 31, 2022. Commercial real estate prices are anticipated to remain at low levels for several quarters based on the third party economic forecast the Company utilizes to calculate its reserve for credit losses.

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During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company recorded a provision for credit losses, net of $28.9 million. This was primarily due to an initial allowance for credit losses of $32.3 million on the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease which was originated on March 1, 2022. This was partially offset by a benefit recorded on the Maryland Live! Lease due to improved performance at that facility compared to previous expectations. This resulted in an improved rent coverage ratio in the Company's reserve calculation which led to a reduction in the Maryland Live! Lease reserve at September 30, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021.

The reason for the higher allowance for credit losses as a percentage of the outstanding investment in leases for the Rockford Lease and Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease compared to the Maryland Live! Lease is primarily due to the significantly higher rent coverage ratio on the Maryland Live! Lease compared to the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease and the expected coverage ratio on the Rockford Lease. Future changes in economic probability factors, changes in the estimated value of our real estate property and earnings assumptions at the underlying facilities may result in non-cash provisions or recoveries in future periods that could materially impact our results of operations.

4.    Real Estate Investments
 
Real estate investments, net, represents investments in rental properties and the corporate headquarters building and is summarized as follows:
 
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Land and improvements$3,552,221 $3,189,141 
Building and improvements6,787,659 6,407,313 
Construction in progress 29,564 
Total real estate investments10,339,880 9,626,018 
Less accumulated depreciation(2,113,577)(1,918,083)
Real estate investments, net$8,226,303 $7,707,935 


The Company's landside development project at Casino Queen Baton Rouge was completed in late August 2023. The Company also acquired the land and certain real estate assets of Bally's Biloxi, Bally's Tiverton and Casino Queen Marquette in 2023. See Note 15 for details.
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5.    Real estate loans, net

As discussed in Note 1, the Company entered into the Rockford Loan during the three months ended September 30, 2023 and $40 million of the $150 million commitment was drawn as of September 30, 2023. The Rockford Loan has a 10% interest rate and a draw period of up to 1 year and a maximum outstanding period of up to 6 years (5-year initial term with a 1-year extension). The following is a summary of the balances of the Company's Real estate loans, net.

September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Real estate loans$40,000 $ 
Less: Allowance for credit losses$(709) 
Real estate loans, net$39,291 $ 

The change in the allowance for credit losses for the Company's Real estate loans is shown below (in thousands):

Rockford Loan
Balance at December 31, 2022$ 
Change in allowance(709)
Ending balance at September 30, 2023$(709)


The Rockford Loan is subject to CECL, which is described in Note 3. The Company recorded provision for credit losses of $0.7 million and $1.6 million on the Rockford Loan and the associated $110 million unfunded loan commitment, respectively, for the three month period ended September 30, 2023. The reserve for the unfunded loan commitment was recorded in other liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The borrower is current on its loan obligation as of September 30, 2023.

6.    Lease Assets and Lease Liabilities

Lease Assets

The Company is subject to various operating leases as lessee for both real estate and equipment, the majority of which are ground leases related to properties the Company leases to its tenants under triple-net operating leases. These ground leases may include fixed rent, as well as variable rent based upon an individual property’s performance or changes in an index such as the CPI, and have maturity dates ranging from 2028 to 2108, when considering all renewal options. For certain of these ground leases, the Company’s tenants are responsible for payment directly to the third-party landlord. Under ASC 842, the Company is required to gross-up its condensed consolidated financial statements for these ground leases as the Company is considered the primary obligor. In conjunction with the adoption of ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019, the Company recorded right-of-use assets and related lease liabilities on its condensed consolidated balance sheets to represent its rights to use the underlying leased assets and its future lease obligations, respectively, including for those ground leases paid directly by our tenants. Because the right-of-use asset relates, in part, to the same leases which resulted in the land right assets the Company recorded on its condensed consolidated balance sheets in conjunction with the Company's assumption of below market leases at the time it acquired the related land and building assets, the Company is required to report the right-of-use assets and land rights in the aggregate on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

Land rights, net represent the Company's rights to land subject to long-term ground leases. The Company obtained ground lease rights through the acquisition of several of its rental properties and immediately subleased the land to its tenants. These land rights represent the below market value of the related ground leases. The Company assessed the acquired ground leases to determine if the lease terms were favorable or unfavorable, given market conditions at the acquisition date. Because the market rents to be received under the Company's triple-net tenant leases were greater than the rents to be paid under the acquired ground leases, the Company concluded that the ground leases were below market and were therefore required to be recorded as a definite lived asset (land rights) on its books.
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Components of the Company's right-of use assets and land rights, net are detailed below (in thousands):
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Right-of use assets - operating leases (1)
$196,749 $181,243 
Land rights, net642,546 652,824 
Right-of-use assets and land rights, net$839,295 $834,067 

(1)     During the three month period ended September 30, 2023, the Company acquired certain real estate assets at the Belle at Baton Rouge and the previously recorded right-of use assets and related accumulated amortization associated with the ground leases at this property totaling $0.4 million were written off.

Land Rights

The land rights are amortized over the individual lease term of the related ground lease, including all renewal options, which ranged from 10 years to 92 years at their respective acquisition dates. Land rights net, consist of the following:
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Land rights (2)
$727,114 $727,796 
Less accumulated amortization (2)
(84,568)(74,972)
Land rights, net$642,546 $652,824 

(2)     During the three month period ended September 30, 2023, the Company acquired certain real estate assets at the Belle at Baton Rouge and the previously recorded land rights and related accumulated amortization associated with the ground leases at this property totaling $0.7 million were written off.

As of September 30, 2023, estimated future amortization expense related to the Company’s land rights by fiscal year is as follows (in thousands):
Year ending December 31,
2023 (remainder of year)$3,276 
202413,104 
202513,104 
202613,104 
202713,104 
Thereafter586,854 
Total$642,546 

Operating Lease Liabilities

At September 30, 2023, payments under the Company's operating lease liabilities were as follows (in thousands):
Year ending December 31,
2023 (remainder of year)$3,654 
202414,566 
202514,510 
202614,512 
202714,038 
Thereafter655,942 
Total lease payments$717,222 
Less: interest(519,849)
Present value of lease liabilities
$197,373 


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Lease Expense

Operating lease costs represent the entire amount of expense recognized for operating leases that are recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Variable lease costs are not included in the measurement of the lease liability and include both lease payments tied to a property's performance and changes in an index such as the CPI that are not determinable at lease commencement, while short-term lease costs are costs for those operating leases with a term of 12 months or less.

The components of lease expense were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Operating lease cost$3,657 $3,367 $11,175 $10,108 
Variable lease cost 5,050 5,106 14,859 14,533 
Short-term lease cost 2  2 
Amortization of land right assets3,699 3,290 10,278 12,570 
Total lease cost$12,406 $11,765 $36,312 $37,213 

Amortization expense related to the land right intangibles, as well as variable lease costs and the Company's operating lease costs are recorded within land rights and ground lease expense in the condensed consolidated statements of income.

Supplemental Disclosures Related to Leases

Supplemental balance sheet information related to the Company's operating leases was as follows:
September 30, 2023
Weighted average remaining lease term - operating leases50.89 years
Weighted average discount rate - operating leases6.57%

Supplemental cash flow information related to the Company's operating leases was as follows:

Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(in thousands)(in thousands)
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
  Operating cash flows from operating leases (1)
$406 $404 $1,215 $1,213 

(1) The Company's cash paid for operating leases is significantly less than the lease cost for the same period due to the majority of the Company's ground lease rent being paid directly to the landlords by the Company's tenants. Although GLPI expends no cash related to these leases, they are required to be grossed up in the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements under ASC 842.

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Financing Lease Liabilities

In connection with the acquisition of the real property assets of Live! Casino & Hotel Maryland, the Company acquired the rights to land subject to a long-term ground lease which expires on June 6, 2111. As the Maryland Live! Lease was accounted for as an Investment in lease, financing receivable, the underlying ground lease was accounted for as a financing lease obligation within Lease liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. In accordance with ASC 842, the Company records revenue for the ground lease rent paid by its tenant with an offsetting expense in interest expense as the Company has concluded that as the lessee it is the primary obligor under the ground leases. The ground lease contains variable lease payments based on a percentage of gaming revenues generated by the facility and has fixed minimum annual payments. The Company discounted the fixed minimum annual payments at 5.0% to arrive at the initial lease obligation. At September 30, 2023, payments under the Company's financing lease liabilities were as follows (in thousands):

2023 (remainder of year)$558 
20242,244 
20252,267 
20262,289 
20272,313 
Thereafter302,058 
Total lease payments$311,729 
Less: Interest(257,590)
Present value of finance lease liability$54,139 


7.    Long-term Debt
 
Long-term debt is as follows:
 
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Unsecured $1,750 million revolver
$10,000 $ 
Term Loan Credit Facility due September 2027600,000  
$500 million 5.375% senior unsecured notes due November 2023
 500,000 
$400 million 3.350% senior unsecured notes due September 2024
400,000 400,000 
$850 million 5.250% senior unsecured notes due June 2025
850,000 850,000 
$975 million 5.375% senior unsecured notes due April 2026
975,000 975,000 
$500 million 5.750% senior unsecured notes due June 2028
500,000 500,000 
$750 million 5.300% senior unsecured notes due January 2029
750,000 750,000 
$700 million 4.000% senior unsecured notes due January 2030
700,000 700,000 
$700 million 4.000% senior unsecured notes due January 2031
700,000 700,000 
$800 million 3.250% senior unsecured notes due January 2032
800,000 800,000 
Other472 583 
Total long-term debt6,285,472 6,175,583 
Less: unamortized debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts(39,266)(47,115)
Total long-term debt, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts
$6,246,206 $6,128,468 

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The following is a schedule of future minimum repayments of long-term debt as of September 30, 2023 (in thousands):

 
2023 (remainder of year)$38 
2024400,156 
2025850,164 
2026985,114 
2027600,000 
Over 5 years3,450,000 
Total minimum payments$6,285,472 
 
Term Loan Credit Agreement

On September 2, 2022, GLP Capital entered into a term loan credit agreement (the “Term Loan Credit Agreement”) with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent (“Term Loan Agent”), and the other agents and lenders party thereto from time to time, providing for a $600 million delayed draw credit facility with a maturity date of September 2, 2027 (the “Term Loan Credit Facility”). The Term Loan Credit Facility is guaranteed by GLPI.

The availability of loans under the Term Loan Credit Facility is subject to customary conditions, including pro forma compliance with financial covenants, and the receipt by Term Loan Agent of a conditional guarantee of the Term Loan Credit Facility by Bally’s on a secondary basis, subject to enforcement of all remedies against GLP Capital, GLPI and all sources other than Bally’s. The loans under the Term Loan Credit Facility may be used solely to finance a portion of the purchase price of the acquisition of one or more specified properties of Bally’s in one or a series of related transactions (the “Acquisition”) and to pay fees, costs and expenses incurred in connection therewith. The Company drew down the entire $600 million Term Loan Credit Facility on January 3, 2023 in connection with the acquisition of the real property assets of Bally's Biloxi and Bally's Tiverton.

Subject to customary conditions, including pro forma compliance with financial covenants, GLP Capital can obtain additional term loan commitments and incur incremental term loans under the Term Loan Credit Agreement, so long as the aggregate principal amount of all term loans outstanding under the Term Loan Credit Facility does not exceed $1.2 billion plus up to $60 million of transaction fees and costs incurred in connection with the Acquisition. There is currently no commitment in respect of such incremental loans and commitments.

Interest Rate and Fees

The interest rates per annum applicable to loans under the Term Loan Credit Facility are, at GLP Capital's option, equal to either a Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") based rate or a base rate plus an applicable margin, which ranges from 0.85% to 1.7% per annum for SOFR loans and 0.0% to 0.7% per annum for base rate loans, in each case, depending on the credit ratings assigned to the Term Loan Credit Facility. The current applicable margin is 1.30% for SOFR loans and 0.30% for base rate loans. In addition, GLP Capital will pay a commitment fee on the unused commitments under the Term Loan Credit Facility at a rate that ranges from 0.125% to 0.3% per annum, depending on the credit ratings assigned to the Credit Facility from time to time. The current commitment fee rate is 0.25%. The weighted average interest rate under the Term Loan Credit Facility at September 30, 2023 was 6.73% .

Amortization and Prepayments

The Term Loan Credit Facility is not subject to interim amortization. GLP Capital is required to prepay outstanding term loans with 100% of the net cash proceeds from the issuance of other debt that is unconditionally guaranteed by GLPI and conditionally guaranteed by Bally’s (“Alternative Acquisition Debt”) that is received by GLPI, GLP Capital or any of their subsidiaries after the funding date of the Term Loan Facility (other than any incremental term loans under the Term Loan Credit Agreement and loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility (as defined below)) except to the extent such net cash proceeds are applied to repaying outstanding loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility. GLP Capital is not otherwise required to repay any loans under the Term Loan Credit Facility prior to maturity. GLP Capital may prepay all or any portion of the loans under the Term Loan Credit Facility prior to maturity without premium or penalty, subject to reimbursement of any SOFR breakage costs of the lenders, and may reborrow loans that it has repaid.


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Certain Covenants and Events of Default

The Term Loan Credit Facility contains customary covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, the ability of GLPI and its subsidiaries, including GLP Capital, to grant liens on their assets, incur indebtedness, sell assets, engage in acquisitions, mergers or consolidations, or pay certain dividends and make other restricted payments. The financial covenants include the following, which are measured quarterly on a trailing four-quarter basis: (i) maximum total debt to total asset value ratio, (ii) maximum senior secured debt to total asset value ratio, (iii) maximum ratio of certain recourse debt to unencumbered asset value, and (iv) minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. GLPI is required to maintain its status as a REIT and is permitted to pay dividends to its shareholders as may be required in order to maintain REIT status. GLPI is also permitted to make other dividends and distributions, subject to pro forma compliance with the financial covenants and the absence of defaults. The Term Loan Credit Facility also contains certain customary affirmative covenants and events of default. The occurrence and continuance of an event of default, which includes, among others, nonpayment of principal or interest, material inaccuracy of representations and failure to comply with covenants, will enable the lenders to accelerate the loans and terminate the commitments thereunder.

Senior Unsecured Credit Agreement and Amended Credit Agreement

On May 13, 2022, GLP Capital entered into a credit agreement (the "Credit Agreement") providing for a $1.75 billion revolving credit facility (the "Initial Revolving Credit Facility") maturing in May 2026, plus two six-month extensions at GLP Capital's option. GLP Capital is the primary obligor under the Credit Agreement, which is guaranteed by GLPI.

On September 2, 2022, GLP Capital entered into an amendment to the Credit Agreement among GLP Capital, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent (“Agent”), and the several banks and other financial institutions or entities party thereto (the Credit Agreement, as amended by such amendment, the "Amended Credit Agreement"). Pursuant to the Amended Credit Agreement, GLP Capital has the right, at any time until December 31, 2024, to elect to re-allocate up to $700 million in existing revolving commitments under the Amended Credit Agreement to a new revolving credit facility (the “Bridge Revolving Facility” and, collectively with the Initial Revolving Credit Facility, the "Revolver").

Loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility are subject to 1% amortization per annum. Amounts repaid under the Bridge Revolving Facility cannot be reborrowed and the corresponding commitments are automatically re-allocated to the existing revolving facility under the Amended Credit Agreement. GLP Capital is required to prepay the loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility with 100% of the net cash proceeds from the issuance of Alternative Acquisition Debt that is received by GLPI, GLP Capital or any of their subsidiaries (other than any term loans under the Term Loan Credit Agreement and any loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility). Any outstanding commitments under the Bridge Revolving Facility that have not been borrowed by December 31, 2024 are automatically re-allocated to the existing revolving facility under the Amended Credit Agreement.

GLP Capital's ability to borrow under the Bridge Revolving Facility is subject to certain conditions including pro forma compliance with GLP Capital's financial covenants, as well as the receipt by Agent of a conditional guarantee of the loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility by Bally’s on a secondary basis, subject to enforcement of all remedies against GLP Capital, GLPI and all sources other than Bally’s. Loans under the Bridge Revolving Facility will not be treated pro rata with loans under the existing revolving credit facility.

At September 30, 2023, $10.0 million was outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement. Additionally, at September 30, 2023, the Company was contingently obligated under letters of credit issued pursuant to the Amended Credit Agreement with face amounts aggregating approximately $0.4 million, resulting in $1,739.6 million of available borrowing capacity under the Amended Credit Agreement as of September 30, 2023.

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The interest rates payable on the loans borrowed under the Revolver are, at GLP Capital's option, equal to either a SOFR based rate or a base rate plus an applicable margin, which ranges from 0.725% to 1.40% per annum for SOFR loans and 0.0% to 0.4% per annum for base rate loans, in each case, depending on the credit ratings assigned to the Amended Credit Agreement. The current applicable margin is 1.05% for SOFR loans and 0.05% for base rate loans. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event shall the base rate be less than 1.00%. In addition, GLP Capital will pay a facility fee on the commitments under the revolving facility, regardless of usage, at a rate that ranges from 0.125% to 0.3% per annum, depending on the credit rating assigned to the Amended Credit Agreement from time to time. The current facility fee rate is 0.25%. The Amended Credit Agreement is not subject to interim amortization except with respect to the Bridge Revolving Facility. GLP Capital is not required to repay any loans under the Amended Credit Agreement prior to maturity except as set forth above with respect to the Bridge Revolving Facility. GLP Capital may prepay all or any portion of the loans under the Amended Credit Agreement prior to maturity without premium or penalty, subject to reimbursement of any SOFR breakage costs of the lenders and may reborrow loans that it has repaid. The weighted average interest rate under the Revolver at September 30, 2023 was 6.73%

The Amended Credit Agreement contains customary covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, the ability of GLPI and its subsidiaries to grant liens on their assets, incur indebtedness, sell assets, make investments, engage in acquisitions, mergers or consolidations or pay certain dividends and make other restricted payments. The Amended Credit Agreement includes the following financial covenants, which are measured quarterly on a trailing four-quarter basis: a maximum total debt to total asset value ratio, a maximum senior secured debt to total asset value ratio, a maximum ratio of certain recourse debt to unencumbered asset value and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. GLPI is permitted to pay dividends to its shareholders as may be required in order to maintain REIT status, subject to the absence of payment or bankruptcy defaults. GLPI is also permitted to make other dividends and distributions subject to pro forma compliance with the financial covenants and the absence of defaults. The Amended Credit Agreement also contains certain customary affirmative covenants and events of default, including the occurrence of a change of control and termination of the Amended PENN Master Lease (subject to certain replacement rights). The occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the Amended Credit Agreement will enable the lenders under the Amended Credit Agreement to accelerate the loans and terminate the commitments thereunder. At September 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all required financial covenants under the Amended Credit Agreement.

Senior Unsecured Notes

At September 30, 2023, the Company had $5,675.0 million of outstanding senior unsecured notes (the "Senior Notes"). Each of the Company's Senior Notes contain covenants limiting the Company’s ability to: incur additional debt and use its assets to secure debt; merge or consolidate with another company; and make certain amendments to the Amended PENN Master Lease. The Senior Notes also require the Company to maintain a specified ratio of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt. These covenants are subject to a number of important and significant limitations, qualifications and exceptions.
The Company may redeem the Senior Notes of any series at any time, and from time to time, at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes redeemed, plus a "make-whole" redemption premium described in the indenture governing the Senior Notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date, except that if Senior Notes of a series are redeemed 90 or fewer days prior to their maturity, the redemption price will be 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes redeemed, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date. If GLPI experiences a change of control accompanied by a decline in the credit rating of the Senior Notes of a particular series, the Company will be required to give holders of the Senior Notes of such series the opportunity to sell their Senior Notes of such series at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes of such series, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the repurchase date. The Senior Notes also are subject to mandatory redemption requirements imposed by gaming laws and regulations. 
The Senior Notes were issued by GLP Capital, L.P. and GLP Financing II, Inc. (the "Issuers"), two consolidated subsidiaries of GLPI, and are guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by GLPI. The guarantees of GLPI are full and unconditional. The Senior Notes are the Issuers' senior unsecured obligations and rank pari passu in right of payment with all of the Issuers' senior indebtedness, including the Amended Credit Facility, and senior in right of payment to all of the Issuers' subordinated indebtedness, without giving effect to collateral arrangements.
The Senior Notes contain covenants limiting the Company’s ability to: incur additional debt and use its assets to secure debt; merge or consolidate with another company; and make certain amendments to the PENN Master Lease. The Senior Notes also require the Company to maintain a specified ratio of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt. These covenants are subject to a number of important and significant limitations, qualifications and exceptions.

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On January 13, 2023, the Company announced that it called for redemption all of the $500 million, 5.375% Senior Notes due in 2023 (the "Notes"). The Company redeemed all of the Notes on February 12, 2023 (the "Redemption Date") for $507.5 million which represented 100% of the principal amount of the Notes plus accrued interest through the Redemption Date, incurring a loss on the early extinguishment of debt of $0.6 million, primarily related to debt issuance write-offs. GLPI funded the redemption of the Notes primarily from cash on hand as well as through the settlement of a forward sale agreement that occurred in February 2023 which resulted in the issuance of 1,284,556 shares which raised net proceeds of $64.6 million. See Note 12 for additional discussion.
At September 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all required financial covenants under its Senior Notes.

8.    Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value are classified based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. ASC 820 - Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures ("ASC 820") establishes a hierarchy that prioritizes fair value measurements based on the types of inputs used for the various valuation techniques (market approach, income approach, and cost approach). The levels of the hierarchy related to the subjectivity of the valuation inputs are described below:

Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. 

Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; these include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, such as interest rates and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals. 

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity's own assumptions, as there is little, if any, related market activity.

    The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the valuation of assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy.

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
 
The following methods and assumptions are used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments for which it is practicable to estimate.


Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
The fair value of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents approximates the carrying value of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, due to the short maturity of the cash equivalents.

Investment in leases, financing receivables, net

The fair value of the Company's investment in leases, financing receivables, net is based on the value of the underlying real estate property the Company owns related to the Maryland Live! Lease, the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease, and the Rockford Lease. The initial fair value was the price paid by the Company to acquire the real estate. The initial fair value is then adjusted for changes in the commercial real estate price index and as such is a Level 3 measurement as defined under ASC 820.

Deferred Compensation Plan Assets

The Company's deferred compensation plan assets consist of open-ended mutual funds and as such the fair value measurement of the assets is considered a Level 1 measurement as defined under ASC 820. Deferred compensation plan assets are included within other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.


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Real Estate Loans, net

The fair value of the real estate loans approximates the gross carrying value of the Company's real estate loans, as collection on the outstanding loan balance is reasonably assured and the loan was recently originated on market based terms. The fair value measurement of the real estate loans is considered a Level 3 measurement as defined in ASC 820.

Long-term Debt
 
The fair value of the Senior Notes are estimated based on quoted prices in active markets and as such is a Level 1 measurement as defined under ASC 820. The fair value of the obligations in our Amended Credit Agreement and Term Loan Credit Facility is based on indicative pricing from market information (Level 2 inputs).

The estimated fair values of the Company’s financial instruments are as follows (in thousands):
 September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 Carrying
Amount
Fair
Value
Carrying
Amount
Fair
Value
Financial assets:    
Cash and cash equivalents
$81,149 $81,149 $239,083 $239,083 
Investment in leases, financing receivables, net1,998,551 1,960,791 1,903,195 1,900,971 
Real estate loans, net
39,291 40,000   
Deferred compensation plan assets
29,604 29,604 27,387 27,387 
Financial liabilities:    
Long-term debt:    
Amended Credit Agreement and Term Loan Credit Facility610,000 610,000   
Senior Notes5,675,000 5,137,660 6,175,000 5,715,963 

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis
During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company entered into an agreement to sell excess land for approximately $3.5 million (that we determined is a level 2 input), which had a carrying amount of $6.8 million and, as such, the Company recorded an impairment charge during the second quarter of 2022. There were no other assets or liabilities measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis during the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.

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9.    Commitments and Contingencies
 
Litigation

The Company is subject to various legal and administrative proceedings relating to personal injuries, employment matters, commercial transactions, and other matters arising in the normal course of business. The Company does not believe that the final outcome of these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations. The majority of these matters are subject to indemnification and defense obligations of our tenants. The Company maintains what it believes is adequate insurance coverage to further mitigate the risks of such proceedings. However, such proceedings can be costly, time consuming, and unpredictable and, therefore, no assurance can be given that the final outcome of such proceedings may not materially impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. Further, no assurance can be given that the amount or scope of existing insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover losses arising from such matters. 

Funding commitments

The Company has agreed to a funding mechanism to support PENN's pursuit of relocation and development opportunities at several of the properties included in the PENN 2023 Master Lease. GLPI agreed to fund up to $225 million for the relocation of PENN's riverboat casino in Aurora at a 7.75% cap rate and, if requested by PENN, will fund up to $350 million for the relocation of the Hollywood Casino Joliet as well as the construction of hotels at Hollywood Casino Columbus and a second hotel tower at the M Resort Spa Casino at then current market rates. The funding commitment expires on January 1, 2026.

See Note 1 for a discussion on the potential future funding commitments the Company may have in connection with the possible future transaction with Bally's and the Athletics at the Tropicana Site.

As discussed in Note 1, the Company has also committed to providing up to $150 million (of which $40 million was funded as of September 30, 2023) of development funding via the Rockford Loan. Any borrowings under the Rockford Loan will be subject to an interest rate of 10%. The Rockford Loan has a draw period of up to 1 year and a maximum outstanding period of up to 6 years (5-year initial term with a 1-year extension). The Rockford Loan is prepayable without penalty following the opening of the Hard Rock Casino in Rockford, IL, which is expected in September 2024. The Rockford Loan advances are subject to typical construction lending terms and conditions.

Finally, the Company has agreed and anticipates funding certain construction costs of a landside development project at Casino Queen Marquette that is expected to be completed by December 31, 2024 for an amount not to exceed $12.5 million.

10.    Revenue Recognition

Revenues from Real Estate

As of September 30, 2023, 14 of the Company’s real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of PENN under the Amended PENN Master Lease, 7 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary under the PENN 2023 Master Lease, 12 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of PENN under the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, 6 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of Caesars under the Second Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease, 3 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of Boyd under the Boyd Master Lease, 8 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of Bally's under the Bally's Master Lease, 2 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to a subsidiary of Cordish under the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease, and 3 of the Company's real estate properties were leased to a subsidiary of Casino Queen under the Casino Queen Master Lease. Additionally, the land under PENN's Hollywood Casino Morgantown is subject to the Morgantown Lease. Finally, the Company has single property triple net leases with Caesars under the Horseshoe St. Louis Lease, Boyd under the Belterra Park Lease, Cordish under the Maryland Live! Lease, and Bally's under the Tropicana Las Vegas Lease and a facility under construction that is intended to be managed by Hard Rock under the Rockford Lease.

Guarantees

The obligations under the Amended PENN Master Lease, the PENN 2023 Master Lease and Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, as well as the Morgantown Lease, are guaranteed by PENN and, with respect to each lease, jointly and severally by PENN's subsidiaries that occupy and operate the facilities covered by such lease. Similarly, the obligations under the Second Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease and Bally's Master Lease are jointly and severally guaranteed by the parent
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company and by the subsidiaries that occupy and operate the leased facilities. The obligations under the Boyd Master Lease are jointly and severally guaranteed by Boyd's subsidiaries that occupy and operate the facilities leased under the Boyd Master Lease. The obligations under the Maryland Live! Lease and the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease are guaranteed by the Cordish subsidiaries that operate the facilities.
Rent
The rent structure under the Amended PENN Master Lease includes a fixed component, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities, which is prospectively adjusted, subject to certain floors (namely the Hollywood Casino at Penn National Race Course property due to PENN's opening of a competing facility) every five years to an amount equal to 4% of the average net revenues of all facilities under the Amended PENN Master Lease during the preceding five years in excess of a contractual baseline.
Similar to the Amended PENN Master Lease, the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease also includes a fixed component, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities, which is prospectively adjusted subject to certain floors (namely the Bossier City Boomtown property due to PENN's acquisition of a competing facility, Margaritaville Resort Casino), every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average net revenues of all facilities under the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

The PENN 2023 Master Lease that became effective on January 1, 2023 has annual rent of $232.2 million, which is fixed and subject to annual escalation of 1.50%, with the first escalation to occur for the lease year beginning on November 1, 2023. In addition to the fixed escalations, a one-time annualized increase of $1.4 million will occur on November 1, 2027. The deferred revenue from the Perryville Lease and Meadows Lease (which were terminated effective January 1, 2023 and whose underlying real estate was added to the PENN 2023 Master Lease) along with an allocation of the deferred revenue from the Original PENN Master Lease, as well as the guaranteed fixed escalations and the one time annual base rent increase are being recognized on a straight-line basis over the initial lease term which expires on October 31, 2033.

On July 23, 2020, the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease became effective as described more fully in Note 1. This modification was accounted for as a new lease which the Company concluded continued to meet the criteria for operating lease treatment. As a result, the existing deferred revenue at the time of the amendment is being recognized in the income statement over the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease's new initial lease term, which now expires in September 2038. The Company has concluded the renewal options of up to an additional 20 years at the tenant's option are not reasonably certain of being exercised as failure to renew would not result in a significant penalty to the tenant. In the fifth and sixth lease years the building base rent escalates at 1.25%. In the seventh and eighth lease years it escalates at 1.75% and then escalates at 2% in the ninth lease year and each lease year thereafter. In addition, the guaranteed fixed escalations in the new initial lease term are recognized on a straight-line basis.

The Boyd Master Lease includes a fixed component, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities, which is adjusted every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of all facilities under the Boyd Master Lease during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

In May 2020, the Company acquired the real estate of Belterra Park in satisfaction of the Belterra Park Loan, subject to the Belterra Park Lease with a Boyd affiliate operating the property. The Belterra Park Lease rent terms are consistent with the Boyd Master Lease. The annual rent is comprised of a fixed component, part of which is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities which is adjusted, every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of Belterra Park during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

On September 29, 2020, the Company acquired the real estate of Horseshoe St. Louis in satisfaction of the CZR loan, subject to the Horseshoe St. Louis Lease, the initial term of which expires on October 31, 2033, with 4 separate renewal options of five years each, exercisable at the tenant's option. The Horseshoe St. Louis Lease's rent terms were adjusted on December 1, 2021 such that the annual escalator is now fixed at 1.25% for the second through fifth lease years, increasing to 1.75% for the sixth and seventh lease years and thereafter increasing by 2.0% for the remainder of the lease.

The Morgantown Lease became effective on October 1, 2020 whereby the Company is leasing the land under PENN's gaming facility and the initial rent on the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease
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years, and commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (a) if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (b) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year. Hollywood Casino Morgantown opened on December 22, 2021.

The initial rent under the Casino Queen Master Lease increases annually by 0.5% for the first six years. Beginning with the seventh lease year through the remainder of the lease term, if the CPI increases by at least 0.25% for any lease year then annual rent shall be increased by 1.25%, and if the CPI increase is less than 0.25%, rent will remain unchanged for such lease year. The Company also completed the landside development project that opened in late August 2023 and rent under the Casino Queen Master Lease was adjusted to reflect a yield of 8.25% on GLPI's project costs of $77 million. Additionally, on September 6, 2023, the Company acquired the land and certain improvements at Casino Queen Marquette for $32.72 million. The annual rent on the Casino Queen Master Lease was increased by $2.7 million for this acquisition. Additionally, the Company anticipates funding certain construction costs of a landside development project at Casino Queen Marquette that is expected to be completed by December 31, 2024 in an amount not to exceed $12.5 million.

The Bally's Master Lease became effective on June 3, 2021 with the annual rent subject to contractual escalations based on the CPI, with a 1% floor and a 2% ceiling, subject to the CPI meeting a 0.5% threshold. On April 1, 2022 and January 3, 2023, the Company completed additional acquisitions from Bally's of various land and real estate assets of Bally's casinos. These properties were added to the existing Bally's Master Lease with annual rent increases subject to the escalation clauses described above.

On December 29, 2021, the Maryland Live! Lease with Cordish became effective. Annual rent increases by 1.75% upon the second anniversary of the lease commencement. The Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease with Cordish became effective March 1, 2022 and annual rent increases by 1.75% upon the second anniversary of the lease commencement. These leases were accounted for as an Investment in leases, financing receivables. See Note 3 for the further information including the future annual cash payments to be received under these leases.

On September 26, 2022, the Tropicana Las Vegas Lease became effective. Commencing on the first anniversary and on each anniversary thereafter, if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent shall increase by the greater of 1% of the rent in effect for the preceding lease year and the CPI increase, capped at 2%. If the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year.

On August 29, 2023, the Company acquired the land associated with the Hard Rock Casino development project in Rockford, IL from 815 Entertainment for $100 million. Simultaneously with the land acquisition, GLPI entered into the Rockford Lease which has a 99 year term and initial annual rent of $8 million, subject to fixed 2% annual escalation beginning with the lease's first anniversary and for the entirety of its term.

Furthermore, the Company's master leases provide for a floor on the percentage rent described above, should the Company's tenants acquire or commence operating a competing facility within a restricted area (typically 60 miles from a property under the existing master lease with such tenant). These clauses provide landlord protections by basing the percentage rent floor for any affected facility on the net revenues of such facility for the calendar year immediately preceding the year in which the competing facility is acquired or first operated by the tenant. A percentage rent floor on the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease was triggered on the Bossier City Boomtown property due to PENN's acquisition of Margaritaville Resort Casino. Additionally, a percentage rent floor on the Amended Penn Master Lease was triggered on the Hollywood Casino at Penn National Race Course in connection with PENN opening a facility in York, Pennsylvania which will go into effect at the next reset.

Costs

In addition to rent, as triple-net lessees, all of the Company's tenants are required to pay the following executory costs: (1) all facility maintenance, (2) all insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties, including coverage of the landlord's interests, (3) taxes levied on or with respect to the leased properties (other than taxes on the income of the lessor) and (4) all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties.

Lease terms

During 2022, the Original PENN Master Lease required an accounting reassessment due to a lease amendment resulting in a lease modification for accounting purposes. The Company concluded the lease term should end at the current
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lease expiration date of October 31, 2033 and not include any of the three remaining renewal terms of 5 years each. This was due to several factors that were not present at the inception of the Original PENN Master Lease. At the time of this amendment, since the formation of the Company on November 1, 2013, the Company had amended and reassessed four of its nine leases that were originated prior to 2021. All four of these reassessments were done before the completion of their initial lease terms and were the result of significant lease amendments. Additionally, Pinnacle sold its operations to PENN for fair value whose underlying real estate for the casino operations were leased from the Company. PENN has significantly diversified its earnings stream since the inception of the Original PENN Master Lease such that the leased operations in the Original PENN Master Lease no longer represent substantially all of PENN's revenues and earnings. We believe all these factors precluded the Company from concluding all renewal periods are reasonably assured to be exercised in the Original PENN Master Lease.

The Amended PENN Master Lease and the PENN 2023 Master Lease became effective January 1, 2023. The Company concluded that the lease term for both of these leases should end at the current lease expiration date of October 31, 2033 and not include any of the three remaining renewal terms of 5 years each due to the factors described above and the fact that the earnings from the leased operations in these master leases do not represent substantially all of PENN's revenues and earnings. The Company concluded that each individual lease component within the Amended PENN Master Lease and the PENN 2023 Master Lease meets the definition of an operating lease. The deferred rent and contractual fixed minimum lease payments at January 1, 2023 are being recognized on a straight-line basis over the initial lease term expiration date of October 31, 2033 for both master leases.

The Casino Queen Master Lease became effective December 17, 2021 and required an accounting reassessment due to changes in the rent and lease terms. The Company concluded the lease term is limited to its initial 15 year term. This was due to several factors that were not present at the inception of the original Casino Queen Lease. In addition to the historical reassessments and the fact that Pinnacle sold its operations to PENN for fair value as described above, additional competitive threats have emerged in the regional markets for the properties in the Casino Queen Master Lease that were not present previously. In particular, land based gaming operations including Casino Queen's leased operation in the state of Illinois have experienced significant additional competitive pressures from video gaming terminals that have rapidly expanded in the state. We believe all these factors precluded the Company from concluding all renewal periods are reasonably assured to be exercised in the Casino Queen Master Lease.

On October 15, 2018, in conjunction with the PENN-Pinnacle Merger, the Pinnacle Master Lease was amended by a fourth amendment to allow for the sale of the operating assets of Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City, Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles and Belterra Casino Resort from Pinnacle to Boyd. As a result of this amendment, the Company reassessed the lease's classification and determined the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease qualified for operating lease treatment under ASC 840. Therefore, subsequent to the PENN-Pinnacle Merger, the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease is treated as an operating lease in its entirety. Because the properties under the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease did not represent a meaningful portion of PENN's business at the time PENN assumed the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, the Company concluded that the lease term of the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease was 10 years, equal to the initial 10-year term only.

In connection with PENN exercising its first renewal option on October 1, 2020, the Company reassessed the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease as the lease term now concludes on May 1, 2031. The Company continued to conclude that each individual lease component within the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease meets the definition of an operating lease. The deferred rent and fixed minimum lease payments at October 1, 2020 are being recognized on a straight-line basis over the new initial lease term ending on May 1, 2031.

The Company concluded it was not reasonably assured at lease inception that Caesars, Boyd or Bally's would elect to exercise all lease renewal options under the Caesars Master Lease, the Boyd Master Lease and the Bally's Master Lease as the earnings from these properties did not represent substantially all of the tenant's business at lease inception (and with respect to the Bally's Master Lease at each point when assets were added to the lease). The Company concluded that the lease term of the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease was its remaining initial lease term which was extended by 5 years when the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease became effective on July 23, 2020. The lease terms of the Boyd Master Lease and Bally's Master Lease are 10 years and 15 years, respectively, equal to the initial terms of such master leases.

The Belterra Park Lease, Morgantown Lease, Maryland Live! Lease, Horseshoe St. Louis Lease and Tropicana Las Vegas Lease are single property leases operated by large-multi-property operators and as such the Company concluded it was not reasonably assured at lease inception that the operator would elect to exercise any renewal options; as such, the lease term of these leases is equal to their initial terms. The Company also concluded that the lease term for the Pennsylvania Live! Master Lease was limited to its initial lease term given the relative size and geographic concentration of the properties in this lease.
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Details of the Company's income from real estate for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 was as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
Building base rent $276,374 $824,150 
Land base rent42,035 124,680 
Percentage rent and other rental revenue17,790 53,449 
Interest income on real estate loans22 22 
Total cash income$336,221 $1,002,301 
Straight-line rent adjustments8,942 26,445 
Ground rent in revenue8,584 25,811 
Accretion on financing receivables5,813 16,806 
Total income from real estate$359,560 $1,071,363